Coptic for All

Coptic for All

Level 2: Lesson 8

Structure of Coptic sentence

The subject

The subject (one who/whcih does the verb) in Coptic can either come before or after the verb:
1- Before the verb:
a- As a conjugated prefix pronoun as discussed in previous lessons:
+ ϥⲛⲁϩϯ = he believed
+ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉϥⲛⲁϩϯ = he did not believed

b- As a proper noun instead of the prefix pronoun - examples:
+ Ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ ⲛⲁϩϯ = Paul believed
+ Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲱⲙ = Mark ate
+ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉ Ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ ⲛⲁϩϯ = Paul did not believe
+ ⲙ̀ⲡⲉ Ⲙⲁⲣⲕⲟⲥ ⲟⲩⲱⲙ = Mark did not eat

2- After the verb using the particle ⲛ̀ϫⲉ, this can probably be translated as “that is”, “I mean” or “i.e” - examples:
+ ⲁϥⲛⲁϩϯ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ Ⲡⲁⲩⲗⲟⲥ = he believed (I mean) Paul
+ ⲁⲥⲓ̀ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁⲙ = she came (I mean) Mariam

The object

The object usually comes after ther verb, it is usually marked by the articles ⲙ̀ /  ⲛ̀ or ⲉ̀ :
1- ⲙ̀ /  ⲛ̀ are used with most verbs (reminder: ⲙ̀ is used if the word starts with one of these letters ( ⲃ ⲙ ⲡ ⲫ ⲯ ) The article ⲛ̀ is used if the word starts with any other letter) - Examples:
+ ⲧⲉⲛⲟⲩⲱϣⲧ ⲙ̀Ⲫ̀ⲛⲟⲩϯ = we worship God
+ ϯⲙⲉⲓ ⲛ̀ⲧⲁⲉⲕⲕⲗⲏⲥⲓⲁ = I love my church

2- ⲉ̀ is used some verbs such as ⲥ̀ⲙⲟⲩ (to bless / praise), ⲥⲱⲧⲉⲙ (to listen) and ⲛⲁϩϯ (to believe) - Examples:
+ Ⲫ̀ⲛⲟⲩϯ ⲥⲱⲧⲉⲙ ⲉ̀ⲧⲉⲛⲥ̀ⲙⲏ = God listen to our voice
+ ⲥ̀ⲙⲟⲩ ⲉ̀Ⲫ̀ⲛⲟⲩϯ = praise God

* Please note that pronouns can be used as objects. We will revisit this in the future.


There are a few particles that can be used to connect words or sentences together
1- ⲛⲉⲙ means “and” is used to connect two words- example:
+ ϧⲉⲛ ⲫ̀ⲣⲁⲛ ⲙ̀Ⲫ̀ⲓⲱⲧ ⲛⲉⲙ Ⲡ̀ϣⲏⲣⲓ ⲛⲉⲙ Ⲡⲓⲡⲛⲉⲩⲙⲁ ⲉⲑⲟⲏⲁⲃ
= in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit

2- ⲟⲩⲟϩ also means “and” is used to connect two verbs, two adjectives or two whole sentences - example:
+ ⲁϥⲓ̀ ⲟⲩⲟϩ ⲁϥⲥⲱϯ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲛ
= He came and He saved us

3- ⲇⲉ means “but” “however” or “meanwhile” it usually comes as second word in the sentence - example:
+ ⲁϥϣⲱⲡⲓ ⲇⲉ ⲛ̀ϫⲉ Ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲣⲉϥϯⲱⲙⲥ ϩⲓ ⲡ̀ϣⲁϥⲉ
= meanwhile, John the baptist was in the desert

4- ϫⲉ has a few uses:
a- “because” or “for”
+ ϫⲉ ⲛ̀ⲑⲟϥ ⲡⲉ Ⲡⲉⲛⲛⲟⲩϯ
= Because He is our God

b- Used as a colon “ : ” or with verbs meaning “say that” such as ϫⲱ ϫⲉ
+ ⲧⲉⲛϫⲱ ⲙ̀ⲙⲟⲥ ϫⲉ Ⲁⲗⲗⲏⲗⲟⲩⲓⲁ
= we say : Halleluia


Lesson 8 test

In order to complete the test you need to answer All the questions. When you are done click the "finish" button in the final slide 

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Level 1

+ Learn the Coptic Alphabet

+ Read simple words and examples from the liturgy

+ Practice reading the Lord's prayer:

Ⲡⲉⲛⲓⲱⲧ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲫⲏⲟⲩⲓ

Try some self study:

Level 2

+ Indefinite and definite articles

+ Present tense

+ Past tense

+ Possessive adjectives

+ Adjectives & association

+ Structure of Coptic sentence

Try some self study:

Level 3

+ Demonstrative pronouns

+ Negation of the past tense

+ Future tense

+ 2nd Past tense

+ Possessive pronouns

+ Studying the First Canticle

Try some self study:

Level 4

+ Imperative

+ Verb relation to object 2nd and 3rd degrees

+ Past continuous

+ Study the Lord’s prayer:

Ⲡⲉⲛⲓⲱⲧ ⲉⲧϧⲉⲛ ⲛⲓⲫⲏⲟⲩⲓ

Level 5

Advanced level, the curriculum will be tailored to the participants’ needs

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